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La Niña, on the other hand, usually causes years which are cooler than the short-term average.El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Niña the cold phase.Data source: Greenhouse gases trap outgoing radiation warming the atmosphere which in turn warms the land.El Niño generally tends to increase global temperatures.
"Hot" (orange), "very hot" (red) "extremely hot" (brown) "average" (white), unusually "cold" (light blue), "very cold" (dark blue) and "extremely cold" (purple).
Deke Arndt leads the monitoring group at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information and offered an analogy in a report on NPR: "The long-term warming is a lot like riding up an escalator over time.
The longer you're on the escalator, the higher you go.
While record-breaking years can attract considerable public interest, individual years are less significant than the overall trend.
Some climatologists have criticized the attention that the popular press gives to "warmest year" statistics; for example, Gavin Schmidt stated "the long-term trends or the expected sequence of records are far more important than whether any single year is a record or not." Of the 20 records, Schmidt stated that the 2014–16 El Niño event was "a factor ...
A temperature anomaly is measured against a reference value or long-term average.